The label :
Carnipure® is a supplement of the amino acid derivative L-carnitine, of the most reliable quality available on the market and used mainly during training or for weight loss. It has been manufactured by the Swiss company Lonza for more than 30 years and its high quality is based on a solid and constantly updated basis of scientific research.
Carnipure® is a product based on the amino acid L-carnitine. The brand offers 2 products: Carnipure® crystalline which consists of pure L-carnitine and Carnipure® tartrate (stable salt containing 68% L-Carnitine and 32% L-tartaric acid representing the highest concentration of L-carnitine in the form of salt currently on the market). A third form, acetyl-L-carnitine (a fat-soluble form which passes the blood-brain barrier) specially used in nootropic supplements, was previously proposed. Carnipure® does not contain any ingredients other than L-carnitine but is very often found in post-workout supplements intended to support physical recovery, in pre-workout supplements (especially aerobic training), in weight loss supplements fat mass (fat burners), in energy supplements as an energy-boosting ingredient, in testosterone-boosting supplements, and sometimes in thyroid supplements to relieve hyperthyroidism.
L-carnitine is an amino acid that plays an essential role in energy metabolism. Indeed, this nutrient has for main role the transport of fatty acids in the mitochondria (organelles allowing the production of ATP) of the cells so that they use them as substrate to manufacture “energy”. It is only during this process that fatty acids can be used to produce energy, which makes L-carnitine an essential nutrient for supplying energy to the organs.
The primary function of L-carnitine is therefore to provide energy from fat. To this extent, L-carnitine is sometimes used in pre-workout supplements to improve endurance exercise performance and delay the early onset of fatigue during aerobic and anaerobic exercise, including weight training. 1,2,3,4,5 . Indeed, by activating the metabolism of fats, L-carnitine allows the supply of energy without the body having to draw on the stock of glycogen during exercise, thus improving endurance. It should be noted, however, that the studies remain contradictory as to the possible effect of L-carnitine on sports performance.
L-carnitine is widely used in post-workout supplements and beverages to support physical recovery 6,7 (especially in the case of bodybuilding) although the precise mechanisms are still unknown. Indeed, L-carnitine would promote increased blood flow, decrease muscle damage and pain and reduce oxidative stress 4 induced by exercise (especially that caused by malondialdehyde). Additionally, L-carnitine, in the form of L-carnitine L-tartrate, does not interfere with muscle protein synthesis as some other natural antioxidants do. It should be noted, however, that all research suggesting that L-carnitine-L-tartrate supplementation improves muscle recovery has been funded by supplement manufacturing companies.
Another well-known use of L-carnitine is in weight loss supplements. L-carnitine is very often found in fat burners for its role in fat oxidation at rest and during exercise. Nevertheless it is important to remember that the mechanism by which L-carnitine could promote the loss of body fat is only theoretical and that no study to date has demonstrated the effectiveness of L-carnitine alone in this. role.
Other less frequently stated roles can be given to L-carnitine. This is particularly the case of its use in nootropic supplements (we then speak of the form of acetyl-L-carnitine) which helps support the production of energy in the brain and contribute to overall cognitive health 8 . L-carnitine is also used in testosterone boosting supplements as it is believed to protect testicular function by reducing oxidative stress and supporting sperm health. Several studies have shown that long-term treatment with carnitine is effective in improving sperm function and ability to fertilize 9,10 and also on sperm concentration and motility 11 (ability to move/move ).
How is Carnipure® different from others? :
First, Carnipure® is created by patented processes (# US6080786A and 5073376A ) to obtain high quality L-carnitine pure or as the L-tartrate salt of Carnipure® with the highest concentration of L- carnitine (68%) of all the salts offered on the market. Additionally, the L-tartrate form of L-carnitine has increased absorption compared to pure L-carnitine which is particularly unstable and cannot be consumed as such. The transport capacity and stability to heat and pH of the L-carnitine-L-tartrate form make it a particularly bioavailable and rapidly assimilable form 12 .
The stable L-carnitine-L-tartrate form offered by Carnipure® has the highest concentration of L-carnitine on the market and the best bioavailability and speed of assimilation.
Second, Carnipure® has several patents describing its uses. A first patent ( #US 20150359769A1 ) was filed for its use to improve physical recovery and reduce muscle damage and exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy people. A second patent ( #US 20140107201A1 ) has been issued to the acetyl-L-carnitine form of Carnipure® (which apparently it no longer markets) for its nootropic benefits in relieving mental fatigue and improving cognitive function. A third patent ( WO n°2002069956A2 ) has been filed claiming the ability of Carnipure® to increase resting testosterone levels and mitigate the drop in testosterone following exercise or a high-fat diet.
Carnipure® has 3 registered patents justifying the uses and physiological capacities of its forms of l-carnitine (acetyl-L-carnitine and L-carnitine-L-tartrate).
Finally, Carnipure® is supported by several scientific articles that highlight its uses. Three randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies 6,7,13 were performed to verify the effects of Carnipure® in the form of L-carnitine-L-tartrate on muscle recovery. These studies suggested that Carnipure® may aid recovery after high-repetition squat exercise, reduce post-exercise muscle tissue chemical damage, and optimize muscle repair and remodeling processes. A second randomized double-blind study 14 showed that, combined with a carbohydrate drink, Carnipure® in L-carnitine-L-tartrate form, could increase muscle carnitine levels as well as improve physical performance. Finally, two other studies 15,16 tested the effects of Carnipure® supplementation in L-carnitine-L-tartrate form on energy metabolism and fat oxidation at rest and during exercise and concluded that supplementation oral causes an increase in the oxidation of long chain fatty acids in healthy subjects but that further studies are needed in obese people. Several other studies have been carried out in the areas of infant nutrition, aging, pregnancy and male fertility.
Carnipure® is the subject of more than a dozen controlled scientific studies making it one of the most scientifically tested brands of supplements.
What the Carnipure® label guarantees:
- Tested in dozens of studies (this is one of the most scientifically tested supplement brands)
Patents/ product quality:
- A production of high quality L-carnitine carried out by patented processes (in particular that of a solid and stable form of salt of Carnipure®),
- The highest concentration of L-carnitine in the form of carnitine salt on the market,
- Patented Uses (Physical Recovery, Nootropic Benefits, Boosting Testosterone Levels)
- The purest form of L-carnitine-L-tartrate on the market and fully stabilized to heat and pH,
- A natural form and 100% of vegan origin.
Accreditation and certification:
- Recognition as a safe ingredient by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) and EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) as well as other food safety organizations,
- Used in infant formula for over 30 years proving its increased safety.
- A product under the GRAS label (considered safe) by the USA.
- Marconi, C., et al. (1985). Effects of l-carnitine loading on the aerobic and anaerobic performance of endurance athletes. European journal of applied physiology and occupational physiology , 54(2), 131-5. PDF
- Panjwani, U., et al. (2007). Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on endurance exercise in normobaric/normoxic and hypobaric/hypoxic conditions. Wilderness Environ Med. Fall, 18(3), 169-76. PDF
- Crayon, R. (1998). Carnitine may benefit athletes Journal of the American College of Nutrition , Vol. 17, No. 6, 649-650. PDF
- Dragan, G.I., et al. (1989). Studies concerning chronic and acute effects of L-carnitine in elite athletes. Physiology, 26, 111–129 .
- Swart, I., et al. (1997). The effect of L-carnitine supplementation on plasma carnitine levels and various performance parameters of male marathon athletes. Nutr Res 17, 405–414. PDF
- Volek, JS., et al. (2002). L-Carnitine L-tartrate supplementation favorably affects markers of recovery from exercise stress. American Journal of Physiology-Endocrinology And Metabolism, 282(2), E474-82 . PDF
- Kraemer, WJ., et al. (2003). The effects of L-carnitine L-tartrate supplementation on hormonal responses to resistance exercise and recovery. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 17(3), 455-62. PDF
- Montgomery, SA . (2003). Meta-analysis of double blind randomized controlled clinical trials of acetyl-L-carnitine versus placebo in the treatment of mild cognitive impairment and mild Alzheimer's disease.Int Clin Psychopharmacol , 18(2), 61-71. PDF
- Costa, M., et al. (1994). Lcarnitine in idiopathic astheno-zoospermia: a multicenter study. Italian Study Group on Carnitine and Male Infertility. Andrologia, 26, 155-159. PDF
- Vitali, G., et al . (1995). Carnitine supplementation in human idiopathic asthenospermia: clinical results. Drugs Exp Clin Res , 21, 157-159. PDF
- Menchini-Fabris, GF., et al . (1984). Free L-carnitine in human semen: its variability in different andrologic pathologies. Fertil Steril , 42,263-267. PDF
- Eder, K., et al . (2005). Free and total carnitine concentrations in pig plasma after oral ingestion of various L-carnitine compounds. Int J Vitam Nutr Res, 75(1), 3 ‐ PDF
- Ho, JY., et al. (2010). l-Carnitine l-tartrate supplementation favorably affects biochemical markers of recovery from physical exertion in middle-aged men and women. Metabolism, 59(8), 1190-9 . PDF
- Wall, BT., et al . (2011). Chronic oral ingestion of L-carnitine and carbohydrate increases muscle carnitine content and alters muscle fuel metabolism during exercise in humans. J Physiol, 589(Pt 4), 963-73 . PDF
- Muller, DM., et al . (2002 ). Effects of oral L-carnitine supplementation on in vivo long-chain fatty acid oxidation in healthy adults. Metabolism, 51(11), 1389-91. PDF
- Stephens, FB., et al . (2013). Skeletal muscle carnitine loading increases energy expenditure, modulates fuel metabolism gene networks and prevents body fat accumulation in humans. J Physiol, 591(18), 4655-66. PDF